- Genetic predisposition
Breast cancer most often occurs in women whose relatives have been exposed to the same disease. First of all, it is about the mother and / or sister, if she is.
- Start of menstruation up to 12 years and discontinuation after 55 years
According to statistics, the most common breast cancer occurs in women with a high level of estrogen. The longer menstrual cycles last, the greater the level of female hormones and the higher is the risk. The absence of births and pregnancies can be attributed to the same risk factor.
- The presence of cancers of genital organs (including cured)
A direct connection between the female genital organs and the mammary gland does its job: a malignant tumor of the cervix, uterus and other organs most often causes breast cancer.
- Smoking, alcohol abuse
Carcinogens contained in alcohol and tobacco burning products, reduce the defenses of the body and can lead to cancer. Such factors include radiation exposure, poor environmental conditions in the region, and so on.
- Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity
- Admission of exogenous hormones for 10 years or more
It was found that with long-term use of such drugs for contraception or for therapeutic purposes, the risk of cancer is higher.
- Injuries, mastitis
The higher risk is for those who have suffered a disease or a trauma to the breast.
Even if there is not a single risk factor listed above, it is impossible to completely exclude the possibility of this disease. And the only way to reduce it, is only an early diagnosis of oncology.
Self-diagnosis of breast cancer
Timely diagnosis of breast cancer will help detect the disease at an early stage. Oncologists advises to visit a mammologist once every two years at the age of 35 to 50 years, from the age of 50 it is better to conduct an examination every year. Until then, you can exclude frequent trips to a specialist and use self-diagnosis. Signs of breast cancer are quite specific: a small compaction appears in the chest, usually painless and does not change the size and density during the month. This seal can be fingered by yourself.
Pay attention to:
The shape of the nipple: if the nipple “retracted”, became smaller, it can talk about an oncological disease;
The shape of the breast: whether it has survived, whether there are any irregularities that can be mistaken for condensation;
The size of the lymph nodes under the arms: their increase is a frequent symptom of oncology;
Your own feelings: if your chest hurts, and you experience unpleasant sensations throughout the menstrual cycle.
Self-diagnosis of breast cancer will not take much time. During the check, stand in front of the mirror, raise your hands above your head, look at the chest.
If you find a seal, if one of the nipples or both have begun to bleed, if the shape of the nipple or chest has changed, there are unpleasant sensations, it is urgent to visit a mammologist who can accurately determine if you have an oncological disease.
Professional Diagnosis of Breast Cancer
If you have any suspicions or the slightest signs of breast cancer have appeared, hurry up and visit your doctor for a professional examination. The mammologist will conduct a number of studies:
- Mammography. This is the main diagnostic method, involving the radiography of mammary glands. You can detect the compaction (swelling), determine its shape and size. Computer tomography is also used to study the structure of the breast and tumors on the basis of X-rays.
- Inspection. Diagnosis of breast cancer begins with this, at a mammologist’s appointment. In fact, it does not differ from self-diagnosis, but the result will be more accurate.
- Ultrasound. The method is available in almost any clinic and allows to obtain a three-dimensional image of the tumor.
- Magnetic resonance imaging. MRI will make it possible to refine the data obtained in other studies.